重复是设计师在强调设计的特定元素和需要吸引观众对特定元素的注意力时使用的。通过把不同的元素放在一起，重复有助于加强设计。它有助于创造一致性和关联性等因素，同时创造出更具组织性的运动感觉(Evans & Thomas, 2012)。
对比可以被称为视觉属性之间的差异，这种差异能够区分一个对象和另一个对象。它是设计要素，经常被用来强调特定的设计项目。它用来使元素脱颖而出，吸引观众的注意力(Lauer & Pentak, 2011)。因此，可以说，对比，就像接近，是设计师用来创造视觉艺术作品的焦点。对比可以用来激发观众对任何艺术或设计作品的兴趣。颜色的对比可以用来重新引导观众的注意力到更重要的部分或艺术作品的信息。
Proximity can be regarded as the manner in which the elements of the design are combines together so as to redirect the attention of the spectator to various elements of the visual piece. It is the closeness of one element to another. Proximity helps in the preservation of unity, and aids in maintaining the continuity of the elements of the visual piece. It helps in the creation of the relationship and association among different elements which appear on a page. Thus, proximity enables to provide a focal point which depicts the centre.
Balance can be regarded as the distribution of the myriad weights of the visual appearance of the objects which are utilized in the visual appearance of the objects. It is the depiction of the combination and synchronization of colors, tone and the quality of the visual texture. It depicts the appropriate use of space (Ocvirk et al., 2002).
Thus, balance can be used to provide the piece of art, stability and structure and is similar to the balance of the discipline of Physics. This is regarded as the principle which defines order and organization among the varying elements of a design. The alignment of the different designs means the creation of the visual connection with the spectators which enables to communicate a story. Alignment aids in putting together the different elements so as to make them visible and to be presented in the readable arrangement. Thus, alignment is the extension of proximity and it specifically aims to position different items in line with each other.
Repetition is utilized by the designers when there is a stress on the particular elements of the design and when there is a need for grabbing the attention of the spectator on a particular element. Repetition aids in strengthening the design by putting different elements together. It helps in the creation of the factors such as consistency and association and at the same time creating the feeling of the movement which is more organized (Evans & Thomas, 2012).
Contrast can be referred to as the difference among the visual properties that enables to distinguish one object from another. It is the design element which is often made use to lay emphasis on the particular projects of design. It is used to make the elements stand out and capture the attention of the spectators (Lauer & Pentak, 2011). Therefore, it would be correct to say that the contrast, like proximity, is used by the designers to create the focal point in the visual piece of art. Contrast can be used to incite the interest of the spectator in any work of art or design. The contrast in the colour can be used for redirecting the attention of the spectator to a more significant portion or message of the piece of art.