部分安排的模式是，優惠只授予市場中選定的部分。輪輻協議是一種協議，在這種協議中，一組或不同的單邊偏好被授予那些沒有得到回報的成員。這種協議根本不會擴大。自由貿易安排是指在自由貿易安排內，對大量產品可以消除貿易壁壘的安排。客戶聯盟是消除參與商品的貿易壁壘，並從一些第三方進口共同的外部關稅的模式(Saggi & Pack, 2006)。關稅同盟可以包括共同市場，因為共同市場的特點是與產品有關的類似規定以及產品在不同成員之間的自由流動。經濟聯盟:經濟聯盟可以定義為成員國在財政和貨幣政策上進行協調的共同市場。
在研究論文中，有不同的圖表與PTAs及其隨時間的擴展有關。從圖1可以看出，近50年來，pta的數量從1950年的0個迅速增加到2000年的300個。除此之外，從圖2中可以看出:隨著時間的推移，各個地區的PTAs都有所增加。從圖3中可以看出，關稅聯盟、共同市場和經濟聯盟的數量一直在穩步增加。從圖4中可以收集到的信息是，多邊pta和hub and spoke協議已經有所增加。輪輻協議在1990年前後有了飛躍。
The pattern of Partial Arrangement is that the preferences are granted only to the selected segments in the markets. Hub and Spoke agreement is the one in which either one or different set of unilateral preferences are granted to those members who aren’t reciprocated. This kind of agreement does not expand at all. Free Trade Arrangement is the one in which trade barriers may be eliminated on a large number of products within the arrangement itself. Customers Unions is the pattern in which trade barriers are eliminated on the participating goods and a common external tariff is imported from some of the third parties (Saggi & Pack, 2006). The customs union may include the common markets as they are marked by the similar regulations related to the product and the free flow of the production amidst different members. Economic union: Economic Union may be defined as the common markets in which the members may also be coordinating in the fiscal and monetary policies.
There are different graphs related to the PTAs and its expansion over time in the research paper. From the figure 1, it has been found that number of PTAs have expanding rapidly in the last 50 years from 0 in 1950 to 300 in 2000. In addition to this, from the figure 2: every region has observed the increase of PTAs overtime. This information can be gathered from the figure 3 is that there has been a steady increase in the number of custom unions, the common markets and the economic unions. The information may be gathered from the figure 4 is that the multilateral PTAs and hub and spoke agreement has increased. There is a jump in hub & spoke agreement around 1990.
There were a number of reasons for the rise in bilateral FTAs. Over the past, there has been a collapse of the Berlin Wall and the US Government is trying to do more and more negotiations for the preferential arrangements. Because of the end of cold war, there has been a demise of Soviet Union which has created a large number of communist nations who aimed to integrate themselves in the economy of the world ((Magee, 2003). Also, entering into bilateral FTA’s proved to be beneficial for USA.
然而，後來雙邊自由貿易協定有所下降。這主要是由於參與自由貿易協定的國家解體。歐盟解體的原因是加入歐盟的條件和歐盟成員國身份的更換條件相同。因此，歐盟的擴張是雙邊FTA下降的主要原因(Eichengreen & Irwin, 1998)。輪轂與輻條協議一直呈上升趨勢。就雙邊貿易協定而言，1990年突然出現了增長。同樣的原因是柏林墻的倒塌，以及聯合國就貿易協定進行談判的決定。
However, later on, there was the decline of the bilateral FTAs. This was mainly due to the dissolution by the participant FTAs. The dissolution was because of the condition of EU Accession and replacement the same with the membership of EU. Thus, the expansion of EU was the main reason for the decline of bilateral FTA’s (Eichengreen & Irwin, 1998). Hub & spoke agreements have been observing a rising slope. In case of bilateral PTAs, there has been a sudden rise in 1990. The reasons for the same are the collapse of the Berlin Wall and also the decision taken by United Nations to negotiate on PTAs.
The multilateral PTAs, on the other hand, have observed the process of expansion with the gains as a result of the market competition. Whenever there is a growth of PTAs, there will be the growth of stemming from being a 3rd party. After this, it is expected that the countries will also express their desire in PTAs with some of the bigger internal markets. Since PTAs consists of a larger market, they will expand rapidly. In addition to this, it is also expected that the PTAs are made within those states which are open with respect to the trade in comparison to the states which are closed.