This dynamism is achieved by concentrating on those who have effectively ‘fallen out’ of the labour market, that is, the long-term unemployed. Cyclical unemployment ‘gets stuck’ because of the reduced job-search activity of the long-term unemployed and employer reluctance to employ them (Layard et al., 1994, p. 59). By tackling this problem, labour supply is increased and overall levels of employment are likely to rise
(Layard, 1997, p. 63). The young are particularly important because they have higher than average rates of unemployment (Layard et al., 1994, p. 67). Ensuring adequate levels of training and education is also important, since the demand for low-skilled labour is falling (Layard, 1997, p. 29). A well-educated workforce will prevent skills shortages and prevent the wages of skilled
workers rising disproportionately. If we revisit the definitions of decommodification discussed above, we can identify a form of ‘recommodification’ in New Labour’s policies. Offe (1984, p. 61) defined decommodification as ‘the withdrawal and uncoupling of an increasing number of social areas and social groups (surplus labour power) from market relations’. Yet New Labour’s goal is precisely the elimination of ‘surplus labour power’, since the core principle of its policies is the maximisation of labour supply. This does not mean that there is no unemployment, but that
those who are not currently employed are actively engaged in either job-search activities or training for work. This enhances competitiveness by ensuring that increases in employment are not inflationary, and that workers compete with each other on the basis of skills. As David Blunkett put it when Education Secretary: ‘firms have more potential recruits to choose from, wage pressure is diminished and non-inflationary growth is promoted’ (Blunkett, 2001). Yet this
‘recommodification’ is achieved not through the withdrawal of the state, but by an increase in its intervention. Esping-Andersen’s definition of decommodification was that it ‘occurs when a service is rendered as a matter of right, and when a person can maintain a livelihood without reliance on the market’ (1990,pp. 21–2). However, the character of social rights has been significantly altered through the attachment of responsibilities to them.
（莱亚德，1997，p. 63）。年轻人尤其重要，因为他们有高于平均失业率（莱亚德等人。，1994，p. 67）。确保足够的培训和教育是重要的，因为低技能劳动力的需求正在下降（莱亚德，1997，p. 29）。一个受过良好教育的劳动力将防止技能短缺和防止技能工资