代写作文-多中心软法

| 11-10月-2019 | 新西兰代写

  本篇代写作文-多中心软法讲了北极环境问题中现有的多中心软法。北极法是为北极环境制定的国际和国内法规。它包括专门处理北极问题的国际条约。第一个具有法律约束力的协议是2011年制定的搜救协议。《北极搜救协议》简称《北极海空搜救合作协议》。这是一项国际条约,同意这项条约的国家或地区有加拿大、冰岛、丹麦、芬兰、瑞典和美国。这一软法试图根据每个国家及其领土要求确定在北极地区进行的每次搜救行动的责任范围(Sobel et al, 2007, p.467-470)。建立搜救责任范围。国家间的边界、主权、权利和管辖权受本法保护。事实上,这是为确保北极地区受到保护而签署的第一个具有约束力的协议。由于全球变暖问题,北极地区的经济重要性正在上升,这些形式的区域约束性协议是必要的。本篇代写作文文章由新西兰第一论文 Assignment First辅导网整理,供大家参考阅读。

  Discussion of existing polycentric soft laws

  The existing polycentric soft laws in the case of Arctic environmental issues are discussed here. Arctic law is the international and domestic regulations that are framed for the Arctic environment. It includes international treaties which specifically deal with Arctic issues. The first legally binding agreement was the Search and Rescue Agreement that was framed in 2011. The Arctic Search and Rescue Agreement is called the Agreement on Cooperation on Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue in the Arctic. This is an international treaty and the states or regions that agreed to this treaty are Canada, Iceland, Denmark, Finland, Sweden and the United States. This soft law attempts to establish the area of responsibility for each search and rescue operation that takes place in the Arctic region based on each of the state’s and their territorial claims (Sobel et al, 2007, p.467-470). SAR responsibility coverage is established. Boundary between states, their sovereignty, rights and jurisdiction are protected by this law. This is in fact the first ever binding agreement that was signed in order to ensure that the Arctic region is protected. The economic importance of the Arctic region is growing because of the global warming issues and these forms of regional binding agreements are necessary.

  The United Nations Conventions on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) aimed to frame the constitution for the oceans There are specific articles in the UNCLOS that are applicable for Arctic regions. Article 56 of the UNCLOS sets the rights for the coastal states and the means they can use to exploit the resources of the regions (Juda, 1999, p.90). The resources of the region are classified as fisheries, minerals and hydrocarbons for energy production and other energy related resources. The Article 56 also recognizes the Exclusive Economic Zones that are set for these exploitations. The Article 234 of the UNCLOS on the other hand only considers the legally binding provisions based on the vulnerability status of the Arctic environment. So the regions surrounding those vulnerable entities are allowed the freedom to adopt and enforce the necessary laws for preventions of marine pollution in their areas. Marine pollution in the form of vehicles in the ocean body are one of the most significant. Ice covered areas in the respective EEZ suffer because of these pollutions (Ducrotoy, 1999, p.313).

  Article 76 of the UNCLOS on the other hand sets the limits on the continental shelf as belonging to a natural prolongation of the land territory. The high seas beyond the national jurisdiction are considered as the marine protected areas. There are different institutional bodies that are concerned with the cooperation and regulation of the both maritime safety and environmental issues in the Arctic. The International Maritime Organization IMO sets the code of safety for ships in the Polar Regions. There are both status quo, non-binding guidelines and also there are expectations or best practices as set by legally binding codes.

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