Breast cancer is caused due to mutation that causes issues in apoptosis of the cell cycle leading to abnormal proliferation of the cells. Gender (being a woman) and age (growing older) are two major risk factors for breast cancer. Some of the risk factors that cause Cancer are caused due to the activities indulged by some people. The term risk activity is used to denote some of the activities that have the possibility of causing Cancer. It is a relative term that is used to explain in detail the possibilities that could cause cancer. Some of the risk factors are weight gain after the age of 18, usage of menopausal hormone therapy, being physically inactive, increased levels of alcohol consumption, usage of cigarette smoking esp. after the first pregnancy of the women. Some studies state that disruptive sleep patterns could also contribute to the formation of breast cancer . In some cases, certain factors are not modifiable; there are the familial history, increase in age, inherited mutation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 or other genes that are vulnerable to develop cancerous conditions . Health conditions such as high bone mineral, osteoporosis and high levels of sex hormones have been attributed to causing cancer. It has been found that for the case of Cancer. Men also develop breast cancer. In America, according to statistical observations, about one of eight will have invasive breast cancer during their lifetime. Breast Cancer is the common cancer in American women next to skin cancer. It is estimated by American Cancer Society that about 40,450 women will die because of breast cancer. Of this, the most increasing risk factor for cancer is the age of the person. It has been found that the relative risk increase for developing breast cancer condition is found to increase with age. Age is identified as the most important factor for developing breast cancer.
Metastatic breast cancer is still considered as incurable . Breast cancer metastasis is that breast cancer cells spread to other parts of the body from its primary site through bloodstream or lymph vessels. Metastasis of breast cancer cells contributes to the majority of deaths due to breast cancer instead of primary tumor. Breast cancer metastasis is a multi-step cascade that begins when cancer cells separate from the primary mass, intravasate through vein walls, spread through the bloodstream, and finally seed new colonies in distant organs. Any failure in any of these steps will lead to suspension of metastasis. Simultaneously, cancer cells need to escape the host’s immune response for the purpose of survival. Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is a rising way to predict breast cancer metastasis. Circulating tumor cells are tumor cells that circulate in bloodstream originating from primary site . CSTs are important for cancer metastasis research. With increased understanding of breast cancer metastatic cascade, cell-surface receptors expressed on cancer cell and their cognate ligands involved in metastasis will lead to critical improvements in the diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer.