personal statement 怎么写-动机理论

  本篇personal statement 怎么写-动机理论讲了动机是一种内在条件作用或精神状态。内部条件作用确保人能够激励和激活他们的行为,以服务于特定的需要(弗兰肯,2006)。以学生为例,如Franken(2006)所述,动机在行为中创造方向和持久性。结合心理学理论,如认知和行为理论,动机被定义为影响个人朝着他们的目标努力。在这篇文献综述中,我们的目标是更好的学习。动机增强了指向特定目标的强度和欲望,并给予理性的方向性。本篇personal statement 怎么写文章由新西兰第一论文 Assignment First辅导网整理,供大家参考阅读。

  Motivational Theories

  Motivation is a form of internal conditioning or state of mind. The internal conditioning ensures that the person is able to energize and activate their behaviour in order to serve a specific want (Franken, 2006). In the case of students for instance, as Franken (2006) presented, motivation creates direction and persistence in behaviour. Combined with psychological theories such as cognitive and behaviour theories, motivation is defined as that influences the individual to work towards their goals. In the case of this literature review, the goal is better learning. Motivation reinforces intensity and desires pointing towards specific goals, and gives rational directionality (Franken, 2006).

  Importance of motivation

  The significance of motivation for a student or for any person in general is that it helps them learn from their situations (Gardner, 2015). It creates learned responses that influence behaviour of the person (Gardner, 2015). Learned responses are that the person is taught through conditioning. Although psychologists attempt to look at motivation from cognitive theories of direct and indirect effects, it is also understood as being drawn from behavioural theory, from memory and cognitive development, from emotions, and other complex environmental stimuli (Gardner, 2015; Yerkes & Dodson, 1908). For instance, habit formation rules also called the Yerkes & Dodson rule, as argued by Gardner (2015) stated that the rate of response for newer stimuli could be useful for understanding operant conditioning. External motivations, internal motivations and more are understood (Erickson & Strommer, 1991; Gardner, 2015).

  Researchers have identified students as requiring different forms of motivation based on the task that they are set out to learn (Erickson & Strommer, 1991). On a consistent basis, five different aspects are identified that they have a strong impact on student motivation. The aspects are the student, the teacher, the content taught, the method or the process, and finally the environment in which the student studies. These are five elements that have a strong impact on student motivation. Often the best way to motivate students involves a combination of theories that draw on the strength of these multiple elements (Erickson & Strommer, 1991; Brookhart, 2013).

  The necessity to understand motivations in the context of learning arise because of the inherent goal oriented and focused nature of the academic world. In order to describe the needed motivation, different forms of goal oriented theories are required. Many cross disciplinary theories are postulated because it is difficult to explain human behaviour adequately with only one theory (Brookhart, 2013; Race, 2014). Cognitive and social development and behavioural aspects have to be understood for practical applications of classical theories in motivation (Renninger et al., 2014). Hence, educational psychology aspects and other cross disciplinary understanding are drawn into this literature review.