research philosophy怎么写:中美历史分析

research philosophy怎么写:中美历史分析

安琪尔岛文学的发展和创作,在很大程度上可以归结为19世纪中叶以来反华移民的框架。加州淘金热(1849年)开始输入中国人,以满足当地金矿对劳动力的需求。在19世纪50年代,超过4.1万名中国工人获得了进入美国的许可。约有34933名中国移民在加州定居。在接下来的二十年里,横贯大陆的铁路建设和西部边疆城镇的扩张不断吸引着更多的中国人。1880年,在美国的中国人口增加到10多万。仅加州就有7.5万移民来自这一人口(Sandmeyer, 1991)。

这些中国移民遍布西部边境(从内华达州、科罗拉多州、亚利桑那州到俄勒冈州)。这些人大大促进了矿业、制造业和农业的发展(Takaki, 1993)。根据Arif Dirlik的说法,19世纪中国移民对西部边疆的扩张和发展起到了巨大的推动作用(Wong, 2004)。

The development and creation of Angel Island literature could be largely placed in the framework of anti-Chinese and their immigration since the middle of 19th century. Gold Fever in California(1849) started to import Chinese people to satisfy the demand of labor and work forces in the local gold mines. In 1850s, more than 41,000 Chinese workforces got the permission to come to America. Around 34,933 Chinese immigrants settled in California. In the next twenty years, the construction of transcontinental railroads and the expansion in the western frontier towns constantly tempted more Chinese people. In the year 1880, the population of Chinese people in the United States increased to over ten hundred thousand. California alone had 75,000 immigrants from this population (Sandmeyer, 1991).
These Chinese immigrants could be seen throughout the borders in the West, (from Nevada, Colorado, and Arizona to Oregon). These people greatly added to development in the mining industries, manufacturing units and also in agriculture (Takaki, 1993). According to the claims of Arif Dirlik, Chinese immigrants had great hand behind the expansion and growth of Western Frontiers in 19th century (Wong, 2004).

research philosophy怎么写 :中美历史分析


直到20世纪初,反华活动仍在公共政治中持续。1901年,《排华法案》又延长了10年。1907年的移民法案迫使缺乏英语技能的中国人进入美国。严格的考试政策被强加给那些想要永久留在美国的中国移民(Courtney, 1956;李,2002;丹尼尔斯,1988)。

The enforcement of the Chinese Exclusion Act in the year 1882 indicated that Chinese were the first ethnic group, who were prohibited to come to America. They also became the turning point of marking major changes in American immigration policy. The immigration policy from the early stage where immigration was free had changed to quota system from the beginning phase of open and free immigration to the creation of quota system. This was done in order to pick affable ethnic groups acknowledged by the United States as being dedicated to their country. The series of legislation after 1882 controlled further Chinese citizenship. In the year 1888, the enactment of Scott Act banned Chinese rights and the Geary Act of 1892 resulted in the extension of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 for the period of ten more years. It also stated that Chinese immigrants who were residing in America must hold the certificate of residence. The immigrants who were found without certificate were detained and imprisoned for a year of tough work.
Till early 20th century, the activities towards anti-Chinese continued in public politics. In the year 1901, there was another ten years of extension in the Chinese Exclusion Act. The immigration Act of 1907 forced further boundaries upon Chinese who were lacking English skill to enter the United States. The policy of strict examination was imposed on the Chinese immigrants, who wanted permanent stay in America (Courtney, 1956; Lee, 2002; Daniels, 1988).