Social Identity theory was proposed by Festinger. In this, he states that the humans have a psychological need to evaluate their opinion in an objective non-social means . In cases, where it is not possible, the people evaluate their opinion with the views of the others. This kind of evaluation ceases to exist when people are found to be very different from the other members, and the people tend to formulate their own opinions. He stated that the people find it almost impossible to change in some circumstances, but they are forced towards homogeneity in their ideas. These differences in the ideologies of the people lead to conflict within the group. These differences between the people can be broadly classified into two kinds.
It has been found that differences in people are observed in terms of visible differences and ideological differences. The visible differences are the different races, gender, and age between the people. There is also stereotyping of the people without looking into their individual views and ideologies that leads to an attitudinal barrier between the people. The differences and the stereotypes in some cases would have stemmed from historical oppression of certain races or gender. This has led to Australian government developing affirmative action. In this, the companies themselves positively discriminate against certain races and women gender to make the off favourable against them . This is done to foster equality of all people in the future.