Meta-ethics is known as the branch of ethics, which is involved in investigating the nature, judgment and meaning of an ethical statement. Thus Meta-ethics is the form of analytic philosophy that investigates the foundation, scope and status of the moral values. The article “The Basic Stances of Meta-ethics” provides the information of what is second-order inquiry and how the moral values and moral truths are evaluated through second-order enquiry. The article deals with the central argument what is “good” or “bad” according to the moral values and from where these values come from. The article also deals with the notions whether there are few things that are morally wrong or right for all the people, or they does the morality changes from person to person or culture to culture.
The cultural relativism is the approval of an action as being moral if one’s culture approves to it. The moral judgment depends on the culture, as in the case of circumcision of girls in Kenya. Though the act is inhuman, it is still practiced in many African countries, as it is approved in their culture. There are disturbing consequences among subjective relativism and cultural relativism as well. Thus the morality in different doctrines has different views. According to Emotivism the moral values are neither right nor wrong; they display one’s emotions and attitudes. Thus it can be said that people can differ in their attitudes but do not differ in their beliefs. The moral facts could not be denied as there are no moral facts. It leads to the conclusion that people can disagree only in attitude, not in beliefs (Lewis, 28).
The different approaches of meta-ethics prove that all the moral values and moral utterances are capable of being true or false. These values can be true objectively as well as subjectively; they can also be true relatively or absolutely. The moral values display the reality in some way or the other. The moral values must be understood with the need of the complete world. Though there are differences in context to context and cultures to cultures, but harmony can be achieved by forming the moral rules that can save every person’s right. The women’s right must be achieved by forming moral ethics.